(Belarusian: Хомскі, Russian: Хомский, Ukrainian: Хомський, Hebrew:
חומסקי, “from (Vyoska) Khomsk (nearby Brest, now Belarus)”) is a
surname of Belarusian origin. Notable people with the surname include:
… Carol (Schatz) Chomsky (1930–2008), American linguist and wife of
austere in Arabic. This was the name of the
uncle. It was also borne by a son of Ali, the fourth caliph.
of the little farm.
Derived from the Old English name Ælfræd, composed of the elements ælf
elf and ræd
Alfred the Great was a 9th-century king of
Wessex who fought unceasingly against the Danes living in northeast
England. He was also a scholar, and he translated many Latin books into
Old English. His fame helped to ensure the usage of this name even after
the Norman conquest, when most Old English names were replaced by Norman
ones. It became rare by the end of the Middle Ages, but was revived in
the 18th century. A famous bearer was the British poet Alfred Lord
son of EDA (2) or
son of ADAM. The surname was borne by
Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931).
Latinized form of the Greek name
Αλεξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant
defending men from Greek
to defend, help and ανηρ
(aner) “man” (genitive ανδρος). In Greek mythology this was another name
of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New
Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King
of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece,
Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval
tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.
The name has been used by kings of Scotland, Poland and Yugoslavia,
emperors of Russia, and eight popes. Other notable bearers include
English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744), American statesman Alexander
Hamilton (1755-1804), Scottish-Canadian explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie
(1764-1820), Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837), and Alexander
Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor of the
From a diminutive of
lofty, sublime in Arabic. Ali was a cousin and son-in-law of the
Prophet Muhammad and the fourth caliph to rule the Muslim world. His
followers were the original Shia Muslims, who regard him as the first
This name is borne by the hero in ‘Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves’, the
tale of a man who finds the treasure trove of a band of thieves. Another
famous bearer was the boxer Muhammad Ali (1942-2016), who changed his
name from Cassius Clay upon his conversion to Islam.
Originally a nickname for a person who had a
hawk-like appearance or
acted in a fierce manner.
son of Anders
Derived from German
heart, a nickname for a
English form of the Greek name Ανδρεας (Andreas), which was derived from
漢子/男人, a derivative of
man. In the New Testament the apostle Andrew, the first
disciple to join Jesus, is the brother of Simon Peter. According to
tradition, he later preached in the Black Sea region, with some legends
saying he was crucified on an X-shaped cross. Andrew, being a Greek
name, was probably only a nickname or a translation of his real Hebrew
name, which is not known.
This name has been common (in various spellings) throughout the
Christian world, and it became very popular in the Middle Ages. Saint
Andrew is regarded as the patron of Scotland, Russia, Greece and
Romania. The name has been borne by three kings of Hungary, American
president Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), and, more recently, English
composer Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-).
Holy+day . … However spelt the
of pre 7th century origins and probably pagan! It is or was, a seasonal
surname originally given to someone born on a
holy day, a religious
Derived from the Greek elements αρχος (archos) “master” and μηδομαι
(medomai) “to think, to plan”. This was the name of a 3rd-century BC
Greek mathematician, astronomer and inventor.
Meaning & History
From a surname which was originally from the name of a city in England,
derived from Brythonic
lake, pool and Latin
colony. This name is usually given in honour of
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), president of the United States during the
American Civil War.
、Ariana/Arianna/Αριαδνη (Ancient Greek)
Meaning & History
Means “most holy”
聖, composed of the Cretan Greek elements αρι (ari)
most and αδνος (adnos)
holy. In Greek mythology, Ariadne was the
daughter of King Minos. She fell in love with Theseus and helped him to
escape the Labyrinth and the Minotaur, but was later abandoned by him.
Eventually she married the god Dionysus.
From a Dutch surname meaning
rose field. This name is often given in
honour of American presidents
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) or
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).
From an English surname which was originally derived from place names
meaning “ash tree clearing”, from a combination of Old English æsc and
leah. Until the 1960s it was more commonly given to boys in the United
States, but it is now most often used on girls.
Derived from Old French tailleur meaning
tailor, ultimately from Latin
晨/辰/黎明 in Latin. Aurora was the Roman goddess of the
morning. It has occasionally been used as a given name since the
red shield, sign from German
red and German or Yiddish
sign, shield. The surname originally came from a family who
took their name from a house with a red shield or sign on it. It has
since been adopted by unrelated Jews.
From the Late Latin name Benedictus which meant
Benedict was an Italian monk who founded the Benedictines in the 6th
century. After his time the name was common among Christians, being used
by 16 popes. In England it did not come into use until the 12th century,
at which point it became very popular. This name was also borne by the
American defector Benedict Arnold (1741-1801).
German: habitational name from any of numerous places named
rose valley). Jewish (Ashkenazic): ornamental name
from the German compound Rosenthal ‘rose valley’.
Source: [Dictionary of American Family Names
©2013, Oxford University Press]
REFER: Rosenthal Family
Medieval form of
BENEDICT. This was the more common spelling in
England until the 18th century. Modern use of the name is probably also
influenced by the common surname Bennett, itself a derivative of the
tailor/裁缝 from Middle English
to cut, an
occupational name for a person who stitched coats and clothing.
VARIANTS: Snider, Sniders, Snyders OTHER LANGUAGES: Schneiders, Schneijder, Snaaijer, Snaijer, Sneiders, Sneijder, Sneijders, Sneijer, Sneijers, Snijder, Snijders (Dutch), Schneider (German), Schneider (Jewish)
Schneider (German for “tailor”, literally “someone who cuts,” from the
verb schneiden “to cut”) is a very common surname in Germany.
Alternate spellings include: Schnieder, Schnaider, Snyder, Schneiter,
Snider, Sneider, Sneijder (Dutch), Snither (English), Snyman
(Afrikaans), Schnyder, Schnider (Swiss German), Sznajder (Polish),
From the Hebrew name
בִּנְיָמִין (Binyamin) which means
son of the south or
son of the right hand. Benjamin in the Old
Testament is the twelfth and youngest son of Jacob and the founder of
one of the southern tribes of the Hebrews. He was originally named
בֶּן־אוֹנִי (Ben-‘oniy) meaning “son of my sorrow” by his mother Rachel,
who died shortly after childbirth, but it was later changed by his
As an English name, Benjamin came into general use after the Protestant
Reformation. A famous bearer was
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), an
American statesman, inventor, scientist and philosopher.
From the Breton given name
noble and worthy.
Latinized form of Βερενικη (Berenike), the Macedonian form of the Greek
name Φερενικη (Pherenike), which meant
bringing victory from
φερω (phero) “to bring” and
νικη (nike) “victory”. This name was
common among the Ptolemy ruling family of Egypt, a dynasty which was
originally from Macedon. It occurs briefly in Acts in the New Testament
(in most English Bibles it is spelled Bernice) belonging to a sister of
King Herod Agrippa II. As an English name, Berenice came into use after
the Protestant Reformation.
From a Scottish and English surname which originally meant
foreigner in Norman French. It was first used as given name in honour
Sir William Wallace, the Scottish hero who led a rebellion to expel
the English invaders from Scotland in the 13th century.
From the Germanic name
Karl, which was derived from a Germanic word
男人/漢子. However, an alternative theory states that it
is derived from the common Germanic element hari meaning
The popularity of the name in continental Europe was due to the fame of
Charles the Great (742-814), commonly known as Charlemagne, a king of
the Franks who came to rule over most of Europe. It was subsequently
borne by several Holy Roman Emperors, as well as kings of France, Spain,
Portugal, Sweden and Hungary. The name did not become common in Britain
until the 17th century when it was carried by the Stuart king Charles I.
It had been introduced into the Stuart royal family by Mary Queen of
Scots, who had been raised in France.
Meaning & History
Means “green shoot”
綠箭 in Greek. This was an epithet of the Greek
goddess Demeter. The name is also mentioned by Paul in one of his
epistles in the New Testament. As an English name, Chloe has been in use
since the Protestant Reformation.
From the medieval Latin name Christianus meaning
a Christian (see
CHRISTOS). In England it has been in use since the Middle Ages, during
which time it was used by both males and females, but it did not become
common until the 17th century. In Denmark the name has been borne by ten
kings since the 15th century. A famous bearer was Hans Christian
Andersen (1805-1875), the Danish author of such fairy tales as ‘The Ugly
Duckling’ and ‘The Emperor’s New Clothes’.
From the Late Greek name Χριστοφορος (Christophoros) meaning
bearing CHRIST, derived from Χριστος (Christos) combined with φερω
to bear, to carry. Early Christians used it as a metaphorical
name, expressing that they carried Christ in their hearts. In the Middle
Ages, literal interpretations of the name’s etymology led to legends
about a Saint Christopher who carried the young Jesus across a river. He
has come to be regarded as the patron saint of travellers.
As an English given name, Christopher has been in general use since the
15th century. In Denmark it was borne by three kings (their names are
usually spelled Christoffer), including the 15th-century Christopher of
Bavaria who also ruled Norway and Sweden. Other famous bearers include
Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), English playwright
Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), and the fictional character Christopher
Robin from A. A. Milne’s ‘Winnie-the-Pooh’ books.
Feminine form of the Late Latin name Clarus which meant
clear, bright, famous
清 / 名 /聞. The name Clarus was borne by a
few early saints. The feminine form was popularized by the 13th-century
Saint Clare of Assisi (called Chiara in Italian), a friend and follower
of Saint Francis, who left her wealthy family to found the order of nuns
known as the Poor Clares. As an English name it has been in use since
the Middle Ages, originally in the form Clare, though the Latinate
spelling Clara became more popular in the 19th century.
French masculine and feminine form of
CLAUDIUS. In France the
masculine name has been common since the Middle Ages due to the
7th-century Saint Claude of Besançon. It was imported to Britain in the
16th century by the aristocratic Hamilton family, who had French
connections. A famous bearer of this name was the French impressionist
painter Claude Monet (1840-1926).
From a Roman family name which was possibly derived from Latin claudus
meaning “lame, crippled”. This was the name of a patrician family
prominent in Roman politics. The ancestor of the family was said to have
been a 6th-century BC Sabine leader named Attius Clausus, who adopted
the name Appius Claudius upon becoming a Roman citizen. The family
produced several Roman emperors of the 1st century, including the
emperor known simply as Claudius. He was poisoned by his wife Agrippina
in order to bring her son Nero (Claudius’s stepson) to power. The name
was later borne by several early saints, including a 7th-century bishop
From a surname which was originally derived from the Old English byname
Old English byname meaning
黑/碳, originally given to a
person with dark features.
首/主/總/中 in Irish Gaelic.
Latinized form of
maiden. It was not used as a given name in
the English-speaking world until after it was employed by James Fenimore
Cooper for a character in his novel ‘The Last of the Mohicans’ (1826).
In some cases it may be a short form of CORDULA, CORINNA or other names
beginning with a similar sound.
cross in Spanish or Portuguese, referring to the cross of the
Meaning & History
Simply from the English word for
the white flower
ultimately derived from Old English
day eye “.
It was first used as a given name in the 19th century, at the same time
many other plant and flower names were coined.
Medieval diminutive of
RICHARD. The change in the initial consonant is
said to have been caused by the way the trilled Norman R was pronounced
by the English.
From the Gaelic name Domhnall which means
ruler of the world, composed
of the old Celtic elements dumno
world and val
rule. This was the
name of two 9th-century kings of the Scots and Picts. It has
traditionally been very popular in Scotland, and during the 20th century
it became common in the rest of the English-speaking world. This is the
name of one of Walt Disney’s most popular cartoon characters,
唐老鸭. It was also borne by Australian cricket player
Donald Bradman (1908-2001).
From the Late Latin name
given. Several early saints
had this name. The name was also borne by two Renaissance masters: the
sculptor Donato di Niccolo di Bette Bardi (also known as Donatello), and
the architect Donato Bramante.
Anglicized form of the Scottish surname Dubhghlas, meaning
from Gaelic dubh
dark and glais
water, river. Douglas was originally
a river name, which then became a Scottish clan name (belonging to a
powerful line of Scottish earls). It has been used as a given name since
the 16th century.
From the noble title
duke, which was originally derived from Latin
总管/管家, derived from the Old English elements
wealth, fortune and weard
guard. Saint Edward the Confessor was
the king of England shortly before the Norman conquest. He was known as
a just ruler, and because of his popularity this name remained in use
after the conquest when most other Old English names were replaced by
Norman ones. The 13th-century king Henry III named his son and successor
after the saint, and seven subsequent kings of England were also named
Edward. This is one of the few Old English names to be used throughout
Europe (in various spellings).
From the Old Norse name Eiríkr, derived from the elements
ever, always and
ruler. A notable bearer was
Eiríkr inn Rauda (Eric the Red in English), a 10th-century navigator
and explorer who discovered Greenland. This was also the name of several
early kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway.
This common Norse name was first brought to England by Danish settlers
during the Anglo-Saxon period. It was not popular in England in the
Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century, in part due to the
Eric, or Little by Little (1858) by Frederic William
From an English surname which was derived from the given name
In the 17th century when it was first used as a given name it was more
common for boys, but it is now regarded as mainly feminine due to
association with the related name Evelina.
From a German surname which was derived from the Latin name
This is the name of a character in German legends about a man who makes
a deal with the devil. He is believed to be based on the character of
Dr. Johann Faust (1480-1540). His story was adapted by writers such as
Christopher Marlowe and
Roman cognomen meaning
auspicious, lucky in Latin. It was also
occasionally used as a
praenomen, or given name. This was the name of
several early Christian saints.
、Florence/Florrie/Flossie/Floella/Flo/Floor, Floris (Dutch), Fiorenza, Fiorenzo (Italian), Florentia, Florentius (Late 罗曼), Florencio (Portuguese), Florencia, Florencio (Spanish) /哈里斯堡
Meaning & History
From the Latin name
Florentius or the feminine form
were derived from
Florentius was borne by many early Christian saints, and it was
occasionally used in their honour through the Middle Ages. In modern
times it is mostly feminine.
The name can also be given in reference to the city in Italy, as in the
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). She was a nurse in British
hospitals during the Crimean War and is usually considered the founder
of modern nursing.
From an English surname which was derived from Middle English frankelin
freeman. A famous bearer of the surname was
(1706-1790), an American statesman, inventor, scientist and philosopher.
The name has commonly been given in his honour in the United States. It
also received a boost during the term of American president
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).
English form of a Germanic name meaning “peaceful ruler”, derived from
frid “peace” and ric “ruler, power”. This name has long been common in
continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy
Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Notables among
these rulers include the 12th-century Holy Roman Emperor and crusader
Frederick I Barbarossa, the 13th-century emperor and patron of the arts
Frederick II, and the 18th-century Frederick II of Prussia, known as
Frederick the Great.
The Normans brought the name to England in the 11th century but it
quickly died out. It was reintroduced by the German House of Hanover
when they inherited the British throne in the 18th century. A famous
bearer was Frederick Douglass (1818-1895), an American ex-slave who
became a leading advocate of abolition.
wand elf in Old Norse, from the elements gandr
wand, staff, cane and álfr
精靈. This name belongs to a dwarf
in the ‘Völuspá’, a 13th-century Scandinavian manuscript which forms
part of the Poetic Edda. The author J. R. R. Tolkien borrowed the name
for a wizard in his novels ‘The Hobbit’ (1937) and ‘The Lord of the
From the English word grace, which ultimately derives from Latin
慧 / 憐 /仁 /雅. This was one of the virtue names created in
the 17th century by the Puritans. The actress Grace Kelly (1929-1982)
was a famous bearer.
From a Scottish surname, originally derived from the English place name
Grantham, which probably meant
gravelly homestead in Old English.
The surname was first taken to Scotland in the 12th century by the
William de Graham. A famous bearer was
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American
inventor who devised the telephone.
From the Norman French form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar, derived from
the elements gwen meaning “fair, white” and sebara meaning “phantom,
magical being”. In Arthurian legend she was the beautiful wife of King
Arthur. According to the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth,
she was seduced by Mordred before the battle of Camlann, which led to
the deaths of both Mordred and Arthur. According to the 12th-century
French poet Chrétien de Troyes, she engaged in an adulterous affair with
The Cornish form of this name, Jennifer, has become popular in the
French form of
GUSTAV. This name was borne by the French artist
Gustave Doré (1832-1883).
staff of the Goths, derived from the Old Norse elements
Gautr “Goth” and stafr “staff”. However, the root name Gautstafr is not
well attested in the Old Norse period. Alternatively, it might be
derived from the Slavic name GOSTISLAV. This name has been borne by six
kings of Sweden, including the 16th-century Gustav I Vasa.
From the English word hazel for the tree or the light brown colour
榛樹, derived ultimately from Old English
hæsel. It was coined as a
given name in the 19th century.
Meaning & History
From the Germanic name Heimirich which meant
composed of the elements heim
ric “power, ruler”. It was
later commonly spelled
Heinrich, with the spelling altered due to the
influence of other Germanic names like
Haganrich, in which the first
element is hagan “enclosure”.
From the Greek name Ιασων (Iason), which was derived from Greek
to heal. In Greek mythology Jason was the leader of
the Argonauts. After his uncle Pelias overthrew his father as king of
Iolcos, Jason went in search of the Golden Fleece in order to win back
the throne. During his journeys he married the sorceress Medea, who
helped him gain the fleece and kill his uncle, but who later turned
against him when he fell in love with another woman.
This name also appears in the New Testament, belonging to man who
sheltered Paul and Silas. In his case, it may represent a Hellenized
form of a Hebrew name. It was not used in England until after the
English form of the Late Latin name Iacomus which was derived from
Ιακωβος (Iakobos), the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name
Ya’aqov (see JACOB). This was the name of two apostles in the New
Testament. The first was Saint James the Greater, the apostle John’s
brother, who was beheaded under Herod Agrippa in the Book of Acts. The
second was James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus. Another James (known as
James the Just) is also mentioned in the Bible as being the brother of
Since the 13th century this form of the name has been used in England,
though it became more common in Scotland where it was borne by several
kings. In the 17th century the Scottish king James VI inherited the
English throne, becoming the first ruler of all Britain, and the name
grew much more popular. Famous bearers include the explorer Captain
James Cook (1728-1779), the inventor James Watt (1736-1819), and the
novelist and poet James Joyce (1882-1941). This name has also been borne
by six American presidents. A notable fictional bearer is the British
spy James Bond, created by author Ian Fleming.
From the Latin Iacobus, which was from the Greek
which was from the Hebrew name
יַעֲקֹב (Ya'aqov). In the Old
Testament, Jacob (later called Israel) is the son of Isaac and Rebecca
and the father of the twelve founders of the twelve tribes of Israel. He
was born holding his twin brother Esau’s heel, and his name is explained
holder of the heel or
supplanter. Other theories claim
that it is in fact derived from a hypothetical name like
יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el) meaning
may God protect.
The English names Jacob and James derive from the same source, with
James coming from Latin Iacomus, a later variant of Iacobus. Unlike
English, many languages do not have separate spellings for the two
In England, Jacob was mainly regarded as a Jewish name during the Middle
Ages, though the variant James was used among Christians. Jacob came
into general use as a Christian name after the Protestant Reformation. A
famous bearer was Jacob Grimm (1785-1863), the German linguist and
writer who was, with his brother Wilhelm, the author of ‘Grimm’s Fairy
From a Cornish form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar (see GUINEVERE). This
name has only been common outside of Cornwall since the beginning of the
20th century, after it was featured in George Bernard Shaw’s play ‘The
Doctor’s Dilemma’ (1906).
KATHERINE, often used independently. It has been used in
England since the Middle Ages. This was the name of the woman who
Petruchio marries and tries to tame in Shakespeare’s comedy ‘Taming of
the Shrew’ (1593). A famous bearer is the British actress Kate Winslet
From the Greek name Αικατερινη (Aikaterine). The etymology is debated:
it could derive from the earlier Greek name ‘Εκατερινη (Hekaterine),
which came from ‘εκατερος (hekateros) “each of the two”; it could derive
from the name of the goddess HECATE; it could be related to Greek αικια
(aikia) “torture”; or it could be from a Coptic name meaning “my
consecration of your name”. In the early Christian era it became
associated with Greek καθαρος (katharos) “pure”, and the Latin spelling
was changed from Katerina to Katharina to reflect this.
The name was borne by a semi-legendary 4th-century saint and martyr from
Alexandria who was tortured on a spiked wheel. The saint was initially
venerated in Syria, and returning crusaders introduced the name to
Western Europe. It has been common in England since the 12th century in
many different spellings, with Katherine and Catherine becoming standard
in the later Middle Ages.
Famous bearers of the name include Catherine of Siena, a 14th-century
mystic, and Catherine de’ Medici, a 16th-century French queen. It was
also borne by three of Henry VIII’s wives, including Katherine of
Aragon, and by two empresses of Russia, including Catherine the Great.
From the name of a Scottish river, perhaps meaning
narrow water. As a
title it was borne by the Irish-Scottish physicist William Thomson, Lord
Kelvin (1824-1907), who acquired his title from the river.
Anglicized form of the Irish name
Caoimhín, derived from the older
Cóemgein, composed of the Old Irish elements
kind, gentle, handsome and gein
birth. Saint Caoimhín established a
monastery in Glendalough, Ireland in the 6th century and is the patron
saint of Dublin. It became popular in the English-speaking world outside
of Ireland in the 20th century.
From a title meaning
king, ruler. Its origin is
the word has been transmitted into many other languages.
French: topographic name for someone who lived near a boundary mark, Old
French fitte (Late Latin
fixta petra ‘fixed stone’, from the past
figere ‘to fix or fasten’), or habitational name from
any of several places in western France named with this word.
Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University
Italian, Spanish and Portuguese form of LEONARD. A notable bearer was
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), an Italian artist and scientist of the
Renaissance. He is also known as the inventor of several contraptions,
including flying machines, as well as the painter of the ‘Mona Lisa’.
Another famous bearer was Leonardo Fibonacci, a 13th-century Italian
mathematician. A more recent bearer is American actor Leonardo DiCaprio
brave lion, derived from the Germanic elements
brave, hardy. This was the name of a 5th-century Frankish
saint who is the patron of prisoners and horses. The Normans brought
this name to England, though it did not become common there until the
From the name of the flower
百合花, a symbol of purity /潔/雅. The
word is ultimately derived from Latin
From the Greek name
Λινος (Linos) meaning
flax. In Greek legend he
was the son of the
god Apollo, who accidentally killed him in a
contest. Another son of Apollo by this name was the music teacher of
Herakles. The name was also borne by the second pope, serving after
Saint Peter in the 1st century. In modern times it was the name of a
character in Charles Schulz’s comic strip ‘Peanuts’.
Feminine form of
LUCIUS. Saint Lucia was a 4th-century martyr from
Syracuse. She was said to have had her eyes gouged out, and thus is the
patron saint of the blind. She was widely revered in the Middle Ages,
and her name has been used throughout Christian Europe (in various
spellings). It has been used in the England since the 12th century,
usually in the spellings Lucy or Luce.
Roman praenomen, or given name, which was derived from Latin lux
光/亮/明. This was the most popular of the praenomina. Two Etruscan
kings of early Rome had this name as well as several prominent later
Romans, including Lucius Annaeus Seneca (known simply as Seneca), a
statesman, philosopher, orator and tragedian. The name is mentioned
briefly in the New Testament belonging to a Christian in Antioch. It was
also borne by three popes, including the 3rd-century Saint Lucius.
Despite this, the name was not regularly used in the Christian world
until after the Renaissance.
From the Germanic name
Chlodovech, which was composed of the elements
famous and wig
war, battle. This was the name of three
Merovingian kings of the Franks (though their names are usually spelled
in the Latinized form Clovis) as well as several Carolingian kings and
Holy Roman Emperors (names often spelled in the French form Louis).
Other famous bearers include the German composer Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770-1827) and the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein
(1889-1951), who contributed to logic and the philosophy of language.
USAGE: English, Biblical
PRONOUNCED: LOOK (English) [key]
Meaning & History
English form of the Greek name Λουκας (Loukas) which meant
from Lucania, Lucania being a region in southern Italy (of uncertain
Saint Luke was a doctor who travelled in the company of
Saint Paul. According to tradition, he was the author of the third
Gospel and Acts in the New Testament. Due to his renown, the name became
common in the Christian world (in various spellings). As an English
name, Luke has been in use since the 12th century. A famous fictional
bearer was the hero
Luke Skywalker from the ‘Star Wars’ movies.
From a title of the Virgin Mary meaning
my lady in Italian. A famous
bearer of the name is American singer Madonna Ciccone (1958-), known
simply as Madonna.
Derived from Latin Margarita, which was from Greek
μαργαριτης (margarites) meaning
pearl, probably ultimately a
borrowing from Sanskrit
मञ्यरी (manyari). Saint Margaret, the patron
of expectant mothers, was martyred at Antioch in the 4th century. Later
legends told of her escape from a dragon, with which she was often
depicted in medieval art. The saint was popular during the Middle Ages,
and her name has been widely used in the Christian world.
Other saints by this name include a queen of Scotland and a princess of
Hungary. It was also borne by Queen Margaret I of Denmark, who united
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway in the 14th century. Famous literary bearers
include American writer Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949), the author of
‘Gone with the Wind’, and Canadian writer Margaret Atwood (1939-).
Italian and Spanish form of
MARIUS. Famous bearers include American
race car driver Mario Andretti (1940-) and Canadian hockey player Mario
Roman family name which was derived either from
MARS, the name of the
Roman god of War, or else from the Latin root
mas, maris meaning
male. Gaius Marius was a famous Roman consul of the 2nd century BC.
Since the start of the Christian era, it has occasionally been used as a
masculine form of MARIA.
Roman praenomen, or given name, which was probably derived from the name
of the Roman god
戰神. This was among the most popular of the
Roman praenomina. Famous bearers include Marcus Tullius Cicero (known
simply as Cicero), a 1st-century BC statesman and orator, Marcus
Antonius (known as Mark Antony), a 1st-century BC politician, and Marcus
Aurelius, a notable 2nd-century emperor. This was also the name of a
pope of the 4th century. This spelling has occasionally been used in the
English-speaking world, though the traditional English form Mark has
been more common.
From the Hebrew name
מִיכָאֵל (Mikha'el) meaning
who is like God?.
This is a rhetorical question, implying no person is like God. Michael
is one of the seven archangels in Hebrew tradition and the only one
identified as an archangel in the Bible. In the Book of Revelation in
the New Testament he is portrayed as the leader of heaven’s armies, and
thus is considered the patron saint of soldiers.
The popularity of the saint led to the name being used by nine Byzantine
emperors, including Michael VIII Palaeologus who restored the empire in
the 13th century. It has been common in Western Europe since the Middle
Ages, and in England since the 12th century. It has been borne (in
various spellings) by rulers of Russia (spelled Михаил), Romania
(Mihai), Poland (Michał), and Portugal (Miguel). Other bearers of this
name include the British chemist/physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867),
musician Michael Jackson (1958-2009), and basketball player Michael
From Italian, meaning “MICHAEL angel”, referring to the archangel
Michael. The Renaissance painter and sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti,
from Florence, was the man who created such great works of art as the
statue of David and the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. This
name was also borne by the Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi, better
known as Caravaggio.
praiseworthy, derived from Arabic
to praise. This
was the name of the prophet who founded the Islamic religion in the 7th
century. According to Muslim belief, at age 40 Muhammad was visited by
the angel Gabriel, who provided him with the first verses of the Qur’an.
Approximately 20 years later he conquered Mecca, the city of his birth,
and his followers controlled most of the Arabian Peninsula at the time
of his death in 632.
Since the prophet’s time his name has been very popular in the Muslim
world. It was borne by several Abbasid caliphs and six sultans of the
Ottoman Empire (though their names are usually given in the Turkish
Mehmet). It was also borne by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi,
a 9th-century Persian mathematician and scientist who devised algebra.
Other famous bearers include the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(1876-1948) and the American boxer Muhammad Ali (1942-2016).
From the Greek name
Νικολαος (Nikolaos) which meant
victory of the people
凱(旋) / 王師 (?) from Greek νικη (nike)
victory and λαος (laos)
people. Saint Nicholas was a 4th-century
bishop from Anatolia who, according to legend, saved the daughters of a
poor man from lives of prostitution. He is the patron saint of children,
sailors and merchants, as well as Greece and Russia. He formed the basis
for the figure known as Santa Claus (created in the 19th century from
Dutch Sinterklaas), the bringer of Christmas presents.
Due to the renown of the saint, this name has been widely used in the
Christian world. It has been common in England since the 12th century,
though it became a bit less popular after the Protestant Reformation.
The name has been borne by five popes and two czars of Russia.
pleasantness in Hebrew. A famous bearer is Noam Chomsky (1928-),
an American linguist and philosopher.
From the Latin name
Patricius, which meant
nobleman. This name was
adopted in the 5th-century by
Saint Patrick, whose birth name was
Sucat. He was a Romanized Briton who was captured and enslaved in his
youth by Irish raiders. After six years of servitude he escaped home,
but he eventually became a bishop and went back to Ireland as a
missionary. He is traditionally credited with Christianizing the island,
and is regarded as Ireland’s patron saint.
In England and elsewhere in Europe during the Middle Ages this name was
used in honour of the saint. However, it was not generally given in
Ireland before the 17th century because it was considered too sacred for
everyday use. It has since become very common there.
From the Roman family name
Paulus, which meant
Latin. Saint Paul was an important leader of the early Christian church,
his story told in Acts in the New Testament. His original Hebrew name
was Saul. Most of the epistles in the New Testament were authored by
Due to the renown of Saint Paul the name became common among early
Christians. It was borne by a number of other early saints and six
popes. In England it was relatively rare during the Middle Ages, but
became more frequent beginning in the 17th century. A notable bearer was
the American Revolutionary War figure Paul Revere (1735-1818), who
warned of the advance of the British army. Famous bearers in the art
world include the French impressionists Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and
Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), and the Swiss expressionist Paul Klee
(1879-1940). It is borne by British musician Paul McCartney (1942-).
This is also the name of the legendary American lumberjack Paul Bunyan.
Feminine form of Paulus (see PAUL). This was the name of a 4th-century
Roman saint who was a companion of Saint Jerome.
Offspring, Descendant of Philip.
Philip itself means
From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Cuinn meaning
descendant of <b>CONN</b>.
Italian form of
רָפָאֵל, רְפָאֵל (Ancient Hebrew), Ραφαηλ (Ancient Greek)
From the Hebrew name רָפָאֵל (Rafa’el) which meant
God has healed. In
Hebrew tradition Raphael was the name of one of the seven archangels. He
appears in the Old Testament in the Book of Tobit, where it is told how
he aided Tobias. This name has never been common in the English-speaking
world, though it has been well-used elsewhere in Europe. A famous bearer
was the 16th-century Renaissance master Raphael (usually known simply as
brave power, derived from the Germanic elements ric
power, rule and hard
brave, hardy. The Normans introduced this name
to Britain, and it has been very common there since that time. It was
borne by three kings of England including Richard I the Lionheart,
leader of the Third Crusade in the 12th century. Famous bearers include
two German opera composers, Richard Wagner (1813-1883) and Richard
Strauss (1864-1949), as well as British explorer Sir Richard Burton
(1821-1890) and American musician Little Richard (1932-).
Short form of
ALESSANDRA “. It was introduced to the
English-speaking world by author George Meredith, who used it for the
heroine in his novel ‘Emilia in England’ (1864) and the reissued version
‘Sandra Belloni’ (1887). A famous bearer is American actress Sandra
Means “Saint James”, derived from Spanish santo
saint combined with
Yago, an old Spanish form of
JAMES, the patron saint of Spain.
Cities in Chile and Spain bear this name.
Italian, Spanish and Portuguese form of
Derived from Latin silva
wood, forest. This was the family name of
several of the legendary kings of Alba Longa. It was also the name of an
early saint martyred in Alexandria.
Derived from the Old Norse name Steinn meaning
VARIANT: Steven (English)
DIMINUTIVES: Ste, Steph, Steve, Stevie (English)
From the Greek name Στεφανος (Stephanos) meaning
crown, more precisely
that which surrounds. Saint Stephen was a deacon who was stoned to
death, as told in Acts in the New Testament. He is regarded as the first
Christian martyr. Due to him, the name became common in the Christian
world. It was popularized in England by the Normans.
This was the name of kings of England, Serbia, and Poland, as well as
ten popes. It was also borne by the first Christian king of Hungary
(10th century), who is regarded as the patron saint of that country.
More recent bearers include British physicist
Stephen Hawking (1942-)
and the American author
Stephen King (1947-).
Greek form of the Aramaic name
תָּאוֹמָא (Ta'oma') which meant
雙子座/複. In the New Testament this is the name of the apostle who
initially doubts the resurrected Jesus. According to tradition he was
martyred in India. Due to his renown, the name came into general use in
the Christian world.
In England the name was introduced by the Normans and became very
popular due to Saint Thomas Becket, a 12th-century archbishop of
Canterbury and martyr. Another notable saint by this name was the
13th-century Italian philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas, who is
regarded as a Doctor of the Church. Other famous bearers include
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), American president Thomas
Jefferson (1743-1826), novelist Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), and inventor
Thomas Edison (1847-1931).
From a Roman name which meant “of Thracia”. Thracia was a region in
southeast Europe, now divided between Greece and Turkey.
From the Old Norse name Þórvaldr, which meant “Thor’s ruler” from the
name of the Norse god Þórr (see THOR) combined with valdr “ruler”.
From an English surname which was taken from a Norman French place name
meaning “domain belonging to THRACIUS”. Charles Dickens used it for a
male character in his novel ‘The Pickwick Papers’ (1837). It was later
popularized as a feminine name by the main character Tracy Lord in the
movie ‘The Philadelphia Story’ (1940). This name is also sometimes used
as a diminutive of THERESA.
Latin alteration of
BERENICE, the spelling influenced by the
ecclesiastical Latin phrase vera icon meaning
true image. This was the
name of a legendary saint who wiped Jesus’ face with a towel and then
found his image imprinted upon it. Due to popular stories about her, the
name was occasionally used in the Christian world in the Middle Ages. It
was borne by the 17th-century Italian saint and mystic Veronica
Giuliani. As an English name, it was not common until the 19th century,
when it was imported from France and Scotland.
From the English word violet for the purple flower
derived from Latin viola. It was common in Scotland from the 16th
century, and it came into general use as an English given name during
the 19th century.
From the Latin name Vivianus which was derived from Latin
靈. Saint Vivian was a French bishop who provided protection
during the Visigoth invasion of the 5th century. It has been
occasionally used as an English (masculine) name since the Middle Ages.
In modern times it is also used as a feminine name, in which case it is
either an Anglicized form of BÉBINN or a variant of VIVIEN (2).
From a Germanic name meaning “ruler of the army”, composed of the
wald “rule” and
hari “army”. The Normans brought it to
England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Wealdhere. A famous
bearer of the name was Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), a Scottish novelist
who wrote ‘Ivanhoe’ and other notable works.